While well-educated and academically trained, it can be said that Pope Francis does not belong to any one “school.” He is not strictly an “Augustinian” or a “Thomist,” though he cites Aquinas quite liberally. However, one person to whom we can likely grant a place of honor is Romano Guardini, to whom Francis devoted his doctoral studies. Guardini, of course, was one of the great thinkers of the early 20th century whose work heavily influenced the theology underlying the Second Vatican Council and many other prominent Catholic theologians.

Italian-born, Guardini grew up in Germany where he had a special role in the formation of young Pope Benedict XVI. Coincidentally, therefore, Guardini’s influence can be felt in both Pope Benedict’s and Pope Francis’ writing. Many of the contributions Francis has made to the Church are substantively in continuity with this school of thought that can be traced from Benedict and Communio through Paul VI and Vatican II to Guardini.

Three main themes from Guardini’s writings that can be found in the thought of Pope Francis are the importance of individual relationships (“I-thou”); theonomy; and the locus of faith being the Church.  

(I apologize in advance for the lengthy and frequent quotations. My goal here was to show development and overlap, not write a book. I hope the selected passages help to illustrate for the reader some commonalities between Pope Francis and Guardini. In various places, I’ve added commentary to explain or show how Francis’s teachings are supported by the underlying theology.)  

Like Guardini, Francis understands the human person in terms of “I-Thou.” As he writes in Laudato Si’, if we get relationships right, then, and only then, can we get the world right (cf. LS, 119). Ultimately, this means never “weaken[ing]… the transcendent dimension of our openness to the “Thou” of God.”  But it also means recognizing the inherent dignity in each person, “each of whom is a ‘thou’ capable of knowing, loving, and entering into dialogue.”

Dr. Robert A. Krieg, a professor at the University of Notre Dame who has published several books on Roman Guardini, writes,

[In Guardini’s view] to be a human person is to be one who relates to oneself and at the same time enters into mutual relationships with other human beings and God. These two aspects of human life are united, Guardini said, as a person lives in an ‘I-thou’ relationship with God. Each human being, he asserted, is called to discover that “my being an ‘I’ has come about because God is my ‘Thou’.

God’s invites us to recognize that he is the author of our life; he is the one who created us to be an “I”. Or in the words of Francis:

The sheer novelty involved in the emergence of a personal being within a material universe presupposes a direct action of God and a particular call to life and to relationship on the part of a “Thou” who addresses himself to another “thou”. The biblical accounts of creation invite us to see each human being as a subject who can never be reduced to the status of an object.

Dr. Krieg extends his discussion on Guardini’s understanding of “I-Thou” to include theonomy (placing authority in God), which he explicitly contrasts with heteronomy (placing authority in other secular and merely human institutions or persons) and autonomy (placing authority solely within oneself). Dr Krieg writes,

Guardini enriched Christian humanism by asserting that personal existence must be governed by theonomy. Each woman or man should recognize God as the only absolute authority for human life, and in turn the living God will set each human being free to become a whole person, one who is an ‘I’ within ‘I-thou’ relationships.

Theonomy, therefore, occurring within the context of that “I-Thou” relationship, is not a matter of domination over the individual that would annihilate the “I” but of invitation to deeper relationship. To reject God’s rule, or to supplant God with oneself or other human beings, ultimately means one’s own self-destruction. Accordingly, Pope Francis immediately follows his discussion on relationships in Laudato Si’ with this passage, affirming God’s primacy:

The ultimate destiny of the universe is in the fullness of God, which has already been attained by the risen Christ, the measure of the maturity of all things.

Theonomy can be found elsewhere, such as in Amoris Laetitia: “The law is itself a gift of God which points out the way, a gift for everyone without exception.” In Amoris Laetitia, specifically, theonomy is something that occurs within the “I-Thou” relationship.

Pope Francis writes:

The International Theological Commission has noted that “natural law could not be presented as an already established set of rules that impose themselves a priori on the moral subject; rather, it is a source of objective inspiration for the deeply personal process of making decisions”. Because of forms of conditioning and mitigating factors, it is possible that in an objective situation of sin – which may not be subjectively culpable, or fully such – a person can be living in God’s grace, can love and can also grow in the life of grace and charity, while receiving the Church’s help to this end.

This passage, to which the infamous footnote is attached suggesting the possibility of the Eucharist and Reconciliation for the divorced and remarried, expresses a fundamental aspect of Francis’ theology: God is working within each person (i.e., within the context of an “I-Thou” relationship) to bring that person into the fullness of his life. The teachings and practices of the Church, and even the natural law, do not exist to define or mediate that relationship between God and man but to help reveal it for the individual and guide it to its perfection in God. Francis writes,

It is reductive simply to consider whether or not an individual’s actions correspond to a general law or rule, because that is not enough to discern and ensure full fidelity to God in the concrete life of a human being. It is true that general rules set forth a good which can never be disregarded or neglected, but in their formulation they cannot provide absolutely for all particular situations.

The teachings and doctrines of the Church point the way and guide our actions; they show what is good and how to live out our salvation (cf. CCC 1955). But God rules us totally and completely in our daily lives with a deep, personal, and sacrificial love.

The law of God that rules us is ultimately the law of mercy, God’s act of reaching out to each of us for our salvation. As Francis writes in Misericordiae Vultus, the bull opening the Jubilee of Mercy:

“We need constantly to contemplate the mystery of mercy. It is a wellspring of joy, serenity, and peace. Our salvation depends on it. Mercy: the word reveals the very mystery of the Most Holy Trinity. Mercy: the ultimate and supreme act by which God comes to meet us. Mercy: the fundamental law that dwells in the heart of every person who looks sincerely into the eyes of his brothers and sisters on the path of life. Mercy: the bridge that connects God and man, opening our hearts to the hope of being loved forever despite our sinfulness.”

Therefore, the Church’s first and ultimate mission is to extend the mercy of God to each person and to help each make the most generous possible response. Mercy, as given by God through the Church, is the “bridge” upon which we build holy lives. In Gaudete et Exsultate, Francis writes, “Seeing and acting with mercy: that is holiness.”  

Francis, in Gaudete et Exsultate provides further insights, after explaining the Church’s teaching on justification being the free gift of God:  

Only on the basis of God’s gift, freely accepted and humbly received, can we cooperate by our own efforts in our progressive transformation.

The long quote from Dr. Krieg below further develops Guardini’s thought, from theonomy to a faith that occurs within the context of the Church:

Guardini held that theonomy is a way of life undertaken within the Church, which itself is called by God to be a community that safeguards and strengthens the distinct, yet interconnected dimensions of a person’s life. When the Church is true to itself, it nurtures women and men as they become both knowing subjects and social beings. To put it another way, Guardini rejected Sören Kierkegaard’s view that theonomy requires a wholly private act of faith. Although he drew on Kierkegaard’s thought, he could not accept the Danish philosopher’s devaluation of Christian beliefs communal aspect. Guardini maintained that “a person goes to the Father only through Christ, and one sees Christ properly only within the space of the Church as oriented by the Holy Spirit.” But he immediately added, “Of course, the Church is not identical with a single part of the hierarchy, or with a particular theological school, or with a conventional way of doing things. It is much more than this; beyond every individual part, there opens the experience of the Church’s totality and essence.” In sum, if human beings intend to become whole persons, they must participate in the community of believers.  

Pope Francis explicitly calls to mind this very principle in Lumen Fidei, shortly after quoting Guardini. Francis writes,

Faith is necessarily ecclesial; it is professed from within the body of Christ as a concrete communion of believers. It is against this ecclesial backdrop that faith opens the individual Christian towards all others.

Church is not just the collection of individuals that share similar beliefs. Faith comes from hearing, specifically the Church who has been a witness to the mercy of Christ and who proclaims that “good word” to the world. We have faith because of the Church and grow in faith through the Church.

Similarly, Pope Francis writes in Evangelii Gaudium,

No one is saved by himself or herself, individually, or by his or her own efforts. God attracts us by taking into account the complex interweaving of personal relationships entailed in the life of a human community.

While not exhaustive, these are just a few instances in which the rich theology of Romano Guardini, developed over many decades and in response to perilous conditions (e.g., the rise and fall of the Third Reich), overlaps with the thought of Francis. While uniquely his own, Francis’ theology builds on the legacy left by Guardini, especially as expressed through Vatican II and Paul VI. It may be worth a book or a few dozen on how that theology can be traced through time as it has unfolded within the context of modernity and in the papacy of Pope Francis. Bishop Barron gives it a go in a short article, showing how Guardini has specifically influenced Francis with regards to creation.  For here, suffice it to say, Francis is a part of this Vatican II tradition which we may ascribe, at least in part, to Guardini.

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11 Responses

  1. Avatar chris dorf says:

    This article, as well of most articles on this excellent web site defending Pope Francis from ‘inquisition like’ attacks, begs the question “What is at the foundation of the viscerally condemning pronouncements against Pope Francis being leveled by those in the Church whom consider themselves the ‘defenders of orthodoxy’?”

    I truly appreciate the humble work done here, because it is easy for people to hear the opponents of Pope Francis claim “Bergoglio is a heretic; Bergoglio is decieved by the devil and is decieving the faithful; Bergolgio is an anti-christ” and become confused by these accusations and thus become swept up into the “Pope Francis is an anti-pope” camp.

    Thank you for your work.

  2. Avatar M. says:

    I also appreciate your articles! And I appreciate that you take a constructive, rather than a gossipy approach. So many blogs and websites are trying to get clicks by playing up disagreements, and adding fuel to the fire. Thank you for staying Christian in the middle of all the mud-slinging and culture wars, which sadly has infected our brothers and sisters in the church.

  3. Avatar Julio says:

    Of note on this subject is Massimo Borghesi’s recently published book, now translated in English, entitled “The Mind of Pope Francis,” published in 2018 by Liturgical Press: https://www.amazon.ca/Mind-Pope-Francis-Bergoglios-Intellectual-ebook/dp/B07H4MZD4V/ref=mp_s_a_1_fkmr1_2?keywords=borghese+mind+francis&qid=1549905248&s=gateway&sr=8-2-fkmr1

    • Daniel Amiri Daniel Amiri says:

      This looks great! I honestly did not see this before writing but I definitely agree that Guardini and St. Ignatius are two critically important figures to keep in mind. My piece that comes out tomorrow will do a deeper look into his experiences in Argentina, especially as a pastor and as a protagonist in the “theology of the people” movement.

  4. Avatar Christopher Lake says:

    This is an important article for many reasons. I fervently hope that it is found, and widely read, by, at the very least, two groups of people: Catholics and atheists. (I will explain, below, *why* it is a deeply personal hope of mine that these two groups will find their way to this piece of writing!)

    As noted therein, Benedict XVI was, and is, a great admirer of the thought of Romano Guardini. The same is true of Pope Francis. Francis is often portrayed by some of his critics as a so-called “liberal Catholic,” yet Francis drinks from many of the very same springs of theology and spirituality as Benedict, who is a hero of the so-called “conservative Catholics.” The fact is, there is a continuity between the thinking of Benedict and Francis. For many of the most controversial statements that Pope Francis has made, in his writings and speeches (on the economy, the environment, and man’s relationship to God and others), quite similar statements can be found in Benedict’s writings and speeches. I hope that many of the Catholics who rightly love and respect Benedict, and yet, are suspicious of, or even, hostile toward, Pope Francis, will take the time to seriously read this article and consider that the two men have a great amount in common in their understandings of the Catholic faith.

    On an even deeper personal level, this article moved me deeply. I was not born into a Catholic (or a devoutly Protestant) family. I was not raised with any real foundational understanding of what it means to be made by God and loved by Him. Much of what I *did* learn, both intellectually and experientially, within my family of birth, was actually harmful and traumatic to my later life of faith, and it has been a process of decades to heal from that harm and trauma. Even with as much knowledge of Scripture and Church teaching as I have gained in my life as an adult man, I admit that I still struggle, at times, to accept God’s love for me, and, more still, to appropriate it as the foundational reality of my life. In that context, reading this article has helped to contribute to my healing. I am thankful.

    Thinking back on my years as a would-be atheist, who was both angry with, and afraid of, God, I am reminded by just how great the distortions were in my thinking about God and the thinking of many of my friends. How I wish that, at some point, those many years ago, I had encountered a statement like the one above from this article (!!):

    “Theonomy, therefore, occurring within the context of that “I-Thou” relationship, is not a matter of domination over the individual that would annihilate the “I” but of invitation to deeper relationship.”

    God does not want to hurt or destroy us. He also doesn’t want to simply make our lives into a series of rules. (There is obviously a point to rules in the Christian life, but they are not *the* point!) He doesn’t invite us to a lesser, diminished life than what we could have without Him, but rather, to so much more, infinitely more. I wish that I had known and understood these truths many years ago, as a deeply hurt, sad, angry, hopeless, and confused young man– but it is so good to have at least some understanding of said truths many years later. Glory be to God!

    • Daniel Amiri Daniel Amiri says:

      Thank you so much for your comments, kind words, and testimony. God is good! I think everyday I learn a little bit more about just HOW good God is!

  5. Avatar Peter Aiello says:

    Many years ago I stumbled upon the Biblical version of the ‘I-Thou’ relationship with God. It was as simple as casting all of my care on the Lord and being anxious for nothing (see 1Peter 5:5-7 and Philippians 4:6-7). I had been curious as to whether Christianity had any instruction on arriving at inner peace. It was there in the Bible. I tried it and had immediate results even though 1Peter 5:6 speaks of being exalted or lifted in ‘due time’. After this, I learned that there were later Catholic spiritualities and mysticisms, but they seemed complex with their multiple steps and religious practices. They spoke of dark nights of the soul; and that the results would happen over a prolonged period of time. I didn’t find them very appealing. Usually, they were practiced within the framework of a religious order. This is probably why I had never heard of them when I was growing up.
    Scripture clearly defines the relationship between God and man as a surrender and unconditional trust in God through Christ, aka humility toward God. This is how we respond to God’s mercy. When His mercy reaches out to us, we respond with humility towards Him, otherwise, He will resist us (James 4:6).
    Faith comes from hearing the Word of God (Romans 10:17). The Word of God can come to us in different ways. Before Bibles became easily accessible, you probably would have heard the Word of God from a preacher. This is no longer the only option. We can now read it for ourselves.

    • Avatar Christopher Lake says:

      Peter,

      Of course, you are right that we can now read the Bible for ourselves. It is a blessed git to be able to do so. Incidentally, the first Bible that was printed with Gutenburg’s printing press, years before the Reformation, was a Catholic Bible!

      For myself, the more that I actually read and studied the Bible (quite seriously, in my years as a vocally anti-Catholic Protestant evangelical who had left the Church), I was eventually convinced to return to the Church and to embrace of *the entirety* of what the Bible, *and* the Church that gave us the *canon* of the Bible, teach us about having a relationship with God.

      The Catholic version of the ‘I-Thou’ relationship with God *is* the Biblical version. The Bible does not teach that all there is to a relationship with God is “casting all of our cares on the Lord” and “being anxious for nothing.” The whole of having a relationship with God is simply not summed up by quoting 1 Peter 5:5-7 and Philippians 4:6-7. The Bible has much more to say on the matter than those verses.

      To be sure, the principles in those passages of Scripture are *indispensable parts* of having a relationship with God. However, Scripture also teaches that we must deny ourselves (our sinful desires), pick up our crosses, and follow Christ (Matthew 16:24-26, Luke 9:23). At least at times, doing these things involves suffering. Scripture is very clear that *if* we suffer with Christ, we will also reign with Him (2 Timothy 2:12). There is no way around that “if” for Christians who wish to truly follow what the Bible teaches.

      In the same vein, there is no way to deny oneself and follow Christ *without* also, sometimes, encountering and undergoing suffering. To follow Christ is to accept the cross, which must mean, at least in part, embracing suffering. Pope Francis has spoken on this clear Scriptural principle: https://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/pope-francis-to-follow-christ-means-to-also-accept-the-cross-70339

      • Avatar Peter Aiello says:

        There are more verses such as: Proverbs 3:5-6; Isaiah 26:3-4; Psalms 55:22; and Isaiah 55:6-9. All of these verses tell us in some way to deny (disown) ourselves, with our desires, in order to have peace and strength, which are fruits of the Spirit (Galatians 5:22-23). All of this makes the suffering that comes our way more bearable. We are told to do a lot of other things after we have the ‘I-Thou’ relationship with God. Titus 2:14 speaks of Christ “Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works”.
        I am thankful that that Church compiled the Bible in the fourth century; and that the printing press made it so accessible. If this hadn’t happened, I may not have ever been receptive to all this teaching.

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